In 2010, the Pentagon mapped out ways to prevent a repeat of the shootings that left 13 people dead at Fort Hood in November 2009.
A report made 47 different recommendations on how to improve security, including these:
- Military and civilian police forces on base should get better training in "how to handle an active shooter."
- The carrying of personal firearms on bases should be restricted.
- The military should begin to consider that its own soldiers could be an internal threat.
The report advised screening active duty personnel for the warning signs of violence.
Emergency 911 communications systems needed improvement, the report said. Upgrades were supposed to have been installed by this year.
Witnesses counted 20 ambulances and 90 law enforcement vehicles at the scene of Wednesday's shooting.
One primary communications system, social media, was a tool of III Corps at Fort Hood. On Facebook, it told personnel to "shelter in place" shortly after the incident began.
Just two years ago, in 2012, another Defense Department study put a cap on some of the other findings. It said the possibility of thwarting an insider attack was almost impossible.